Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP) was the first National Park to be established among the eight that are currently present in Nigeria. The Park covers an area of 5,340.82 km2 and is comprised of two sectors, Borgu and Zugurma. This study revealed that KLNP harbours diverse flora, fauna, hydrological, cultural and human resources. The estimated fauna density noted that Baboon, Patas monkey, Green monkey, Lion, Buffalo, Grimm's Duiker, Elephant, Warthog, and Redflanked Duiker are the major representative species.
The establishment of KLNP in 1976 marked the first attempt at managing wildlife for recreation in Nigeria. The Park originally started as Borgu and Zugurma Game Reserves, which were endowed with considerable hydrological resources mainly from Kainji Lake and the Oli River. A survey of the KLNP shows that the abundant vegetative, edaphic (plant communities distinguished by soil conditions), hydrological and animal resources in the area have been influenced by the local population which has been growing considerably since the impoundment of the lake.
From available records on fauna, carnivores have the highest number of species in the park, with the least mammalian orders being represented by Hyrocoida, Sirena, Rubuliduntata, Pholidata and Lagomorpha. The elephant population is conspicuously absent. Primate distribution is limited to Kali hill and the Tungan Giwa area of the park. Estimates of the fauna population in the Borgu sector show a decline due to heavy poaching. An avian population of about 420 species in 56 families was observed in the Borgu sector. The survey showed 118 species of fish belonging to 23 families.
Plant diversity records indicate about 164 species of dicots and 110 species of monocot plants. To sustain the park, a management plan has been commissioned by the Park Management authority. Policies are included to reduce conflict between park management and host communities and to improve the livelihood of the native rural dwellers through their participation in the park management.